SENTENCE AS SYNTACTIC UNITPosted date: November 23rd 2018
In the hierarchical system of syntactic units, a sentence takes the central place. It is considered, on the one hand, as a unit formed from words and phrases, and on the other hand, as a unit that is segregated from the text. Formulating sentences, words, and phrases are combined by syntactic relationships and express opinions, that is, some kind of message about objects and phenomena of reality. A sentence expresses the speaker's attitude to facts of reality in terms of assertion, negation, uncertainty, probability, and unlikelihood. An essential feature of the sentence is the intonation, which acts as a means of decoding predicate and modality. The intonational features are an important means of distinguishing types of sentences by their purpose. Predictability and intonation completeness are the main features of a sentence that distinguishes it from word combinations and words.
A sentence is a multidimensional unit, the allocation of which is based on signs that represent its structural and semantic unity (independence, functioning, predicative, intonational design and semantic completeness, grammatical organization). The accumulation of these features and characterizes the sentence as a unit of speech.
It serves to formulate a message and convey thoughts. Depending on the structure of the sentence, they are divided into simple and complex. A simple sentence has only one clause. In a complex sentence there can be two or more clauses, that is two or more parts. Parts of the complex sentence can be interconnected by intonation and correlation. Sentences help make speech logical and unite different words and phrases together. If there were no sentences, people would not be able to express their emotions and feelings. Thoughts would be just a bunch of words. There are many criteria for classifying them. Here are four types of sentences that are considered the main ones.
WHAT ARE THE FOUR TYPES OF SENTENCES
All sentences, depending on the purpose of the statement, are divided into some groups. They are called types of sentences.
Declarative sentence (or statement) is a sentence, which contains information about some facts, events, or phenomena of reality. The intonation of the statement is characterized by a decrease in the tone at the end of the sentence. For example: Today is a great day. I like to have toasts for breakfast.
Interrogative sentence (or question) is a sentence that contains a question that prompts the interlocutor to answer (to reflect on the answer). You must use a question mark at the end of the interrogative sentences. For example: Why are you upset? Why do you think about this movie?
An interrogative pronoun (who, what, which, etc.) can be used in such sentence. The question is also expressed in terms of intonation. Rhetorical questions are sentences that do not require an answer because it is already contained in the question itself. For example: Is it possible not to love my parents?
An imperative sentence is a sentence expressing an inducement to act in the form of a request, advice, order, prohibition, claim, appeal, warning, etc. For example: Bring me a book, please. The prompting is expressed by the infinitive and diverse in appearance by the inductive intonation.
A negative sentence is a form of denial and disagreement. It is the opposite of the declarative sentence. For example: I do not like to eat porridge. I do not learn Spanish. It is formed by means of a negative particle "not."
THE ROLE OF INTONATION IN THE SENTENCE
All sentences can be pronounced with enhanced intonation, that is, they become exclamatory. Exclamatory intonation is transmitted by using the exclamation mark. The intonational shade of sentences depends on their content. Both positive and negative emotions can be expressed through exclamatory intonation. For example: I love my native town! I love you very much! I like these sweets so much! I hate this subject! This costume is terrible!
Now you know everything about 4 types of sentences, this knowledge will help you to use different grammatical constructions correctly.
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