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# Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton can be rightfully called one of the most influential scientists, who was well known all over the world as a mathematician, physicist, philosopher, astronomer, alchemist, and even a theologian. He was an intelligent person who introduced the world to a number of inventions. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to analyze life way and invaluable researches of the scientist.

## Isaac Newton’s Biography

Isaac Newton was born and spent first years of his life in Lincolnshire near Grantham. Even though he came from a poor family, he managed to find his way to become a great scientist. His education in mathematics started when he entered Cambridge University, in 1661, although he had to leave the university during the plague. The obstacle, however, was rather a spur for Newton to make some of his best discoveries during this period (Wolfram Research, 2012). His life was full of ups and downs from suffering mental breakdowns to holding the honorary titles like a Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, a Fellow of Trinity College at the beginning of his scientific career, Member of Parliament to the Convention Parliament, in 1689, Master of the Mint, in 1696, a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, in 1671, and the President of the Royal Society of London, in 1703. Newton was proclaimed the most esteemed natural philosopher in the whole Europe, in 1714 (Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 2012).

## Isaac Newton’s Discoveries

Isaac Newton was studying and developing various spheres of science with a special interest in optics, mathematical studies, gravitation and mechanics, chemistry, alchemy, physics, history, astronomy, and theology. He wrote a few profound books, although quite a few researches were left unpublished. His most famous works were called Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687) and Optics (1705).

Isaac Newton was a pioneer of classical mechanics, who explained universal gravitation and worked out three Newton’s laws of motion, which included law of inertia, law of acceleration proportional to force, and the law of action and reaction (Wolfram Research, 2012).

Newton’s discoveries in mathematics include developing the differential and integral calculus together with Leibniz. Furthermore, Newton made a contribution to the power series study, simplified the binomial theorem, and invented a method for approximating the function roots, which was later called the Newton’s method (Wolfram Research, 2012).

Among other most exciting discoveries made by Isaac Newton were the invention of a reflective telescope, developing the colour theory, formulating an empirical law of cooling, researching the sound speed (Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 2012).

Some impressing results were achieved by Newton in astronomy. Making some calculations, he discovered that the Earth had an oblate spheroid shape and was able to describe the motion of the Moon. Newton analyzed the comets’ behavior, which helped to predict the Halley’s Comet return (Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 2012).

Isaac Newton’s achievements in chemistry and alchemy are partially described in his essay On the nature of acids (1710) and the book Optics (1705). Newton suggested a theory of chemical force, which he never completed, invented a system of chemistry, and explained some chemical reactions. Moreover, he became an exemplar for the future generations (Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 2012).

### Conclusion

Isaac Newton is considered as a scientist, who made the most significant contribution in the development of various spheres of science. The achievements he had in mathematical research and experimental investigation are still respected and applied in modern science. His views always were creative and progressive.

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