← Review of Article on How to Improve Decision-MakingAviation Industry →

Large Hadron Collider

Large Hadron Collider is one of the most impressive experimental installations of modern physics. It is located at about hundred meters underground in a ring tunnel in length of 26.7 km. Bunches of protons and antiprotons, moving on a ring towards each other, will be dispersed by electric fields at special accelerating stations to energy of 7 TeV (1012 electron-volt). Besides, it is supposed to make acceleration of kernels of lead. For deduction and focusing of bunches, 1624 superconducting magnets which work at temperature 1.9ºK (nearby-271ºC) are used. Therefore, for maintenance of their work, the whole "factory" on manufacture of liquid helium is required. Settlement consumption of energy collider makes 180 MW (megawatt) in an operating time. For the construction of the accelerator and system from six detectors which will collect the information on the processes occurring at collisions of particles, it was required to unite efforts of many countries. Active part in this work is also taken by Russia.

Get a price quote

It is worth answering for what all these technical shifts and rather considerable expenses of means were required. Physicists expect by means of LHC to receive answers to variety of the major questions on a structure of a matter and properties of space and time. We will consider the short basic directions of the researches planned on LHC. Researches of physics of the microcosm, the XX century spent throughout second half, have led to creation of Standard Model (SM) which, on base of quantum field representations, successfully describes practically all micro processes observed by us. According to the SM, the entire material world consists of quarks (forming, in particular, protons and neutrons which are nuclear matters) and leptons (most known of which is electron). Interaction of quarks and leptons occurs by means of an exchange of particles-carriers: gluons (strong interaction), W± and Z0 - bosons (weak interaction) and photons (electromagnetic interaction). Essential line of SM is that particles get weight at the expense of interaction with the scalar fields carrying the name of fields of Higgs. Experimental supervision of quantum of this field - the Higgs boson - will allow to be convinced definitively of justice of logic of SM and to bring «finishing specifications» in its design. For the decision of this problem of energy, LHC are very "approaching": either Higgs boson will be found or it will be possible to draw a conclusion on necessity of essential reforming of SM. Actually, an overall objective of experiments on LHC is the information search that allows to be beyond "the standard" physics. The main drawback of SM is an absence of the description of gravitational interaction which, thanks to the General Theory of the Relativity of Einstein and other theories of gravitation was created after it was understood, is closely connected with properties of space and time. In the last quarter of the XX century, theorists have offered variety of unusual ideas for gravitation inclusion in fundamental theories of a microcosm: existence of additional (besides three spatial and one time) measurements (this idea has received indirect acknowledgement in supervision over Universe expansion), super symmetry, theories of superstrings, and others. However, to choose among offered theories the most correct on the basis of available experimental data, it appeared to be impossible: in the field of low energy, their predictions coincide. It is possible to tell that having passed «SM territory» almost up to the end, physicists have appeared at the crossroads not supplied with any indexes for a choice of the necessary way among many roads. The data which are planned to receive on LHC, can confirm justice of some of the ideas (for example, detection of heavy super partners of "usual" particles will be a nice acknowledgement of idea of super symmetry).

There are some more directions of researches which are of great importance. For example, studying a plasma quark-gluon can help to understand a structure of some astrophysical objects and to become a basis of the future power. Studying of properties of heavy quarks presumes to receive data on their internal structure that is to get on deeper level of studying of a structure of a matter. Studying of bunches high energy particles will allow to improve methods of "reading" of the information brought by space beams. This list is far from being complete, though.

Free Extras:
  • FREE revision (within 48 hours)
  • FREE title page
  • FREE bibliography
  • FREE outline
  • FREE formatting
We Guarantee:
  • Quality research and writing
  • Fully referenced papers
  • 24/7 LIVE support
  • Any citation style
  • Up-to-date source only
  • PhD and MBA writers
  • 100% Confidentiality
  • Never resold works

Recently, LHC has got wide popularity because of the performances of mass media and some researchers about possibility of global catastrophic consequences of start-up of the collider. They are based on assumptions of birth of some objects on LHC: microscopic black holes (BH), "germs" new vacuum, "wormholes" of space-time, magnetic mono-fields, and hyper steady kernels with an impurity of strange quarks («strangelets»). Further, these assumptions join new - about possibility of catastrophic influence of these objects to the Earth. It is difficult to recognize all listed "dangers" as realistic ones. Even possibility of existence of these objects is not established till now. Besides, the scale energy of LHC is not "critical" for their birth. For example, typical energy which is required (according to the majority of the theories supposing such events) for the birth of micro-BH, "germs", and "wormholes" surpass energy LHC in 1015 (one million billions) time and magnetic mono-fields - in 1012 times. Therefore, the probability of a birth of these objects is catastrophically small even from the point of view of the theories supposing their existence. In theories where such probability is a little above (but it is all the same very small from "the everyday" point of view), these objects don’t usually remain stable and disappear without having had time to cause any harm. For a birth of stable strangelets, energy LHC opposite is too big. Summarizing all the information above, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the accurate theoretical analysis does not give the grounds to consider any of the "dangers" seriously. Besides theoretical, there are also practical reasons not to trust catastrophic expectations. Really, the energy reached on already existing installations (for example, "Tevatron", laboratory named after E. Fermi and relativistic collider with heavy ions of Brookhaven National Laboratory), only 10 times concedes the energy of LHC. This difference is essential from the point of view of search of the Higgs boson or studying of properties of a top quark, but is not very essential to mentioned "dangerous" events. If they could occur on LHC, physicists necessarily would see if there were any displays in the statistician of events of these installations. However, anything similar was not observed. Besides, in open spaces of a visible part of the Universe, many astrophysical objects generate bunches of particles with energy of which terrestrial experimenters do not even dream. Besides, the density of a stream of particles in these bunches is essentially surpassed by everything that is on the earth. Particles with energy exceeding energy LHC are present at the space beams getting to atmosphere of the earth. All these phenomena also do not prove the signs of a birth of catastrophically dangerous particles.

The mankind now faces variety of problems, each of which threatens with global accident: the ecological crises, accruing instability of the world in relation to social, military and man-triggered accidents, and degradation processes in morally-ethical sphere. It is not necessary to concentrate the attention to unreal problems – it’s better to be engaged in the decision of the more real ones.

Order custom research papers and get a high quality writing.

Related essays

  1. Aviation Industry
  2. Cyber Warfare
  3. Review of Article on How to Improve Decision-Making
  4. The Effects of Watching a lot of Television

Lifetime discounts

  • 5% for more than 30 pages
  • 10% for more than 50 pages
  • 15% for more than 100 pages


  • Customer's choices of either double or single spaced writing;
  • 300 words per page
  • 1" margins on all sides;
  • 12 pt., Times New Roman font;
  • Formatting style of customer's choice;
  • Free reference page.

FREE Features

  • FREE revision (within 2 days);
  • FREE Title page;
  • FREE Outline(on demand);
  • FREE Table of Contents(on demand);
  • FREE Bibliography.