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Societies

Society is a collection of people who share some cultural and moral values. Culture binds the public. Moreover, without social norms, human existence would become chaotic and unpredictable. Every community is characterized by the collective consciousness, which is supported by different rules and gives a sense of connectedness with other members of the society. This paper will focus on the comparison of different societies, the type of work in each of them and the role assignments.

 

The classification of societies originates with gatherers - hunters and ends with post-industrial civilization, mediated by a long process of human development. With the advancement of technologies, societies acquired the ability to produce more goods. However, the increase in population and the number of food products drew the distinction between wealth and poverty. The degree of social inequality during the time of gathers and hunters was the lowest one. It was the oldest community, whose members had relatively equal duties and rights. Men hunted and fished, while women gathered berries and other vegetation. The family in this society was the foundation of life. Additionally, their relationship was based on cooperation, because there was no private property back then.

In comparison with the previous one, horticultural societies cultivated fruits, and plants. They were small as well as gathers and hunters. Moreover, the division of labor occurred. This period saw the invention of hoes and shovels that helped to create the village and stayed there for a long time.

Pastoral societies were formed simultaneously with horticultural ones. In such communities, people lived in one place and started to breed grazing animals for food. Furthermore, these societies still exist in places such as “Somalia, Ethiopia and North Africa countries where horticulture and manufacturing are not possible” (Different Types of Societies and Their Major Characteristics). They understood that wool, milk of animals and cropping were more profitable than hunting. Pastoral societies were male–dominated, where men were responsible for herding and selling cattle. As women stayed at home, gender inequality can be traced. They accounted for food production, parenting, milking cows and jewelry making.

With the invention of the plow, humans settled together, cultivated land and grew crops. Therefore, these are known as agricultural societies. The family was still important, but other social institutions were created a well, namely economy and religion. Social inequality was maintained in these communities; slavery appeared, and their owners considered themselves as kings.
Under the influence of science and technology in industrial societies, people started producing goods using machines. Thus, factories became the centers of work. Due to this fact “home cottages” as the usual workplace became less prevalent, as did the family's role in providing vocational training and education” (Types of Societies). Additionally, a struggle for power between industrialists and workers occurred.

A technological revolution created postindustrial societies. At that time, the demand for labor reduced, and the workforce at plants was trimmed. The basic principles of post-industrial communities are information and knowledge. Hence, more individuals aim at going to college and receiving education. Consequently, no social inequality and classification exist in such conditions.
Our society belongs to the postindustrial one. Thus, humanity uses advanced technologies namely computers, satellites, and microchips. Moreover, studying in colleges and universities is very important for the future of a person. People are offered not only things but also services.

Societies varied from simple to complex changing socially relying on structural differentiation. Simple communities are the tribal ones, where everything depends on family bonds. In more advanced societies, the contribution of blood relationships is limited and specific because there are some institutions of education, work, and religion.

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In conclusion, throughout history, there were different societies in terms of advancement, inequality, culture, and politics. However, six types explain the stages of human development, the main kinds of work, gender and social role of community members.

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